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Term Definition
Internal Impedance

The opposition to the flow of an alternating current at a particular frequency in a cell or battery at a specified state-of-charge and temperature.

Internal Resistance

The opposition or resistance to the flow of a direct electric current within a cell or battery; the sum of the ionic and electronic resistance of the cell components. Its value may vary with the current, state-of-charge, temperature, and age. With an extremely heavy load, such as an engine starter, the cell voltage may drop to approximately 1.6. This voltage drop is due to the internal resistance of the cell. A cell that is partly discharged has a higher internal resistance than a fully charged cell, hence it will have a greater voltage drop under the same load. This internal resistance is due to the accumulation of lead sulfate on the plates. The lead sulfate reduces the amount of active material exposed to the electrolyte, hence it deters the chemical action and interferes with the current flow.


Part of a molecule or group of atoms, positively or negatively charged, which transports electricity through the electrolyte.


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